The Haida Nation Constitution holds the Haida Nation responsible for the establishment of land and resource policies and regulations for Haida Gwaii that are consistent with nature’s ability to produce, that also enable access to resources to ensure self-sufficiency and the perpetuation of Haida heritage and cultural identity.
- Government-to-Government Leadership
- Stakeholder engagement
- Coordinated Marine Planning
- Coordinated Compliance and Enforcement
The Council of the Haida Nation is working with the Province of BC and Government of Canada to manage Haida Gwaii marine areas through a number of government-to-government cooperative partnerships. Each partnership involves different partners (and representative agencies), depending on the scope and focus of the work. Government-to-government cooperative partnerships between the CHN and other governments include:
SGaan Kinghlas-Bowie Seamount Marine Protected Area Management Board
The SGaan Kinghlas-Bowie Seamount Memorandum of Understanding (2007) established a Management Board with representation from the CHN and DFO to exchange views and provide advice to the Government of Canada and the Haida Nation on the planning and management of the marine protected area. It consists of two CHN representatives and two DFO representatives. The Management Board seeks to operate on a consensus basis and submits advice to both the CHN and the DFO Minister for consideration.
Gwaii Haanas Archipelago Management Board
The original Gwaii Haanas Agreement (1993) provided for cooperative terrestrial management of the Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve and Haida Heritage Site by the CHN and Government of Canada (Parks Canada) through the Archipelago Management Board. The subsequent Gwaii Haanas Marine Agreement (2010) expanded the planning, operations, and management responsibilities of the AMB to include the marine area.
As described in the Gwaii Haanas Marine Agreement, the AMB is currently made up of an equal number of members representing the Haida Nation (3 representatives) and Government of Canada (2 Parks Canada, 1 DFO).
Haida Gwaii Marine Management Board
The Haida Gwaii Marine Plan Implementation Agreement (2016) commits the Haida Nation and the Province of BC to the establishment of a Haida Gwaii Marine Management Board to coordinate and support implementation of the Haida Gwaii Marine Plan. As outlined in the agreement, the Marine Management Board will consist of two senior representatives for the Haida Nation and the Province.
Marine Management Board duties will include appointing and providing direction to a Haida Gwaii Marine Implementation Technical Team on issues regarding Marine Plan implementation, and evaluating progress and outcomes on an annual basis. The Marine Management Board will seek to operate on a consensus basis in their recommendations and decisions.
Pacific North Coast Integrated Management Area Collaborative Governance Arrangements
The Pacific North Coast Integrated Management Area Plan (2016) was developed under the Pacific North Coast Collaborative Oceans Governance MOU (2008) between First Nations (including the CHN) and DFO. The MOU was subsequently amended to enable participation by the Province of BC (Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations).
The PNCIMA Plan identifies collaborative governance as a priority for plan implementation. Next steps include revising the Collaborative Governance MOU to facilitate First Nations, federal and provincial oversight of the implementation of the PNCIMA Plan.
These partnerships between the CHN and crown government agencies are shown in the graphic below:
The engagement of island residents and other key stakeholders in the development and implementation of marine-related initiatives on Haida Gwaii is an important component of Haida Nation’s work. The advisory groups on Haida Gwaii include the proceeding.
In addition to formal advisory committees, planning partners engage bilaterally with stakeholder groups. Bilateral engagement may focus on a specific place (e.g., Gwaii Haanas, SGaan Kinghlas-Bowie Seamount) and/or a specific issue (e.g., fisheries management, EBM implementation).
Gwaii Haanas Advisory Committee
In December 2014 the Gwaii Haanas Advisory Committee was established to provide advice to the planning partners throughout the development of a land-sea-people management plan for Gwaii Haanas. The individual members of the GHAC bring experience or knowledge in one or more of the following: Haida traditional ecological and cultural knowledge, tourism, recreational fishing, commercial fishing, Haida Gwaii youth, resource management, academia and the environmental non-government conservation sector.
SGaan Kinghlas - Bowie Seamount Marine Protected Area Advisory Committee
The SGaan Kinghlas – Bowie Seamount Marine Protected Area Advisory Committee, established in 2011, is a multi-stakeholder group of individuals with interests in the MPA and knowledge and experience related to the ecology, management, conservation and use of the area. The group provides advice to the Management Board regarding planning and management of SGaan Kinghlas.
Marine Advisory Committee
The Haida Gwaii Marine Advisory Committee was formed in 2011 to support the development of the Haida Gwaii Marine Plan. The MAC is comprised of fifteen individuals with local experience and knowledge in the areas of: commercial fishing, recreational fishing, Haida marine knowledge, conservation, marine tourism, marine sciences and education, economic development/marine industries, and marine transportation.
In April 2015 the Haida Gwaii Marine Plan was approved by the Haida Nation and BC. The Haida Nation and BC are currently evaluating options for stakeholder engagement for implementation of the Haida Gwaii Marine Plan.
PNCIMA Integrated Oceans Advisory Committee
The Integrated Oceans Advisory Committee was established in 2011 to provide guidance to the PNCIMA planning process. The IOAC is comprised of participants from each of the key marine-related sectors in the PNCIMA region, including commercial and recreational fisheries, tourism, recreation, local government, conservation organizations, aquaculture, non-renewable and renewable energy and marine transportation.
MaPP Regional Marine Advisory Committee and MaPP Science Advisory Committee
The development of the MaPP Regional Action Framework was informed by the advice of two advisory committees: the Regional Marine Advisory Committee and Science Advisory Committee. The RMAC is comprised of representatives from coastal forestry, commercial tourism, finfish aquaculture, local government, marine conservation, public recreation, renewable energy, shellfish aquaculture, commercial fisheries, recreational fishing service providers, non-renewable energy and infrastructure interests. The SAC is an external pool of science and technical experts, and includes members with knowledge of marine ecology, ecosystem services, fisheries science, spatial analysis, marine spatial planning, ecosystem-based management, economics, traditional ecological and local knowledge, and social sciences. An engagement strategy for RAF implementation is under development.
Coordinated Marine Planning
Coordinated marine planning in Haida Gwaii waters by the Haida Nation, BC and Canada is facilitated by two bodies – a Haida Gwaii Marine Steering Committee with senior-level representation and a Marine Coordinating Committee with technical staff capacity.
Haida Gwaii Marine Steering Committee
The Haida Gwaii Marine Steering Committee includes representatives of the CHN, Parks Canada (Gwaii Haanas), BC Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations, and Fisheries and Oceans Canada.
The role of the Steering Committee is to collaborate on marine initiatives. Steering Committee representatives are responsible for advising each other of their agency or organization’s mandates, policies and regulations as they relate to marine planning. All members are accountable to their own governing bodies.
Council of the Haida Nation: Russ Jones
Parks Canada (Gwaii Haanas): Ernie Gladstone
BC Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations (Haida Gwaii): Len Munt
Fisheries and Oceans Canada (North Coast): Colin Masson
Haida Gwaii Marine Coordinating Committee
The Haida Gwaii Marine Coordinating Committee is comprised of technical staff from the CHN, Parks Canada (Gwaii Haanas), BC Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations, and Fisheries and Oceans Canada.
The role of the Coordinating Committee is to provide support to the Haida Gwaii Marine Steering Committee, including technical coordination of Haida Gwaii marine initiatives and the development of shared products. Similar to the Steering Committee, Coordination Committee members may provide advice and information to each other on individual government or agency mandates, policies and regulations. The Coordinating Committee also facilitates Haida Gwaii marine planning through the sharing of expertise and resources where appropriate.
First Nations Governance Committee
At a regional scale, guidance for marine planning initiatives is provided by the First Nations Governance Committee. The First Nations Governance Committee has representatives from the northern Vancouver Island, Central Coast, North Coast, and Haida Gwaii. The primary role of the committee is to represent the values and interests of member communities, and provide guidance to regional marine planning initiatives. The Haida Nation’s representative is Trevor Russ.
Coordinated Compliance and Enforcement
Cooperative compliance and enforcement has been identified as a priority by the Haida Nation, BC and Canada. In 2013, a new approach involving the Haida Nation and BC was implemented to streamline procedures and provide for a coordinated presence on Haida Gwaii. More recently, Gwaii Haanas (Parks Canada) has also engaged in coordinated compliance and enforcement activities.
The Haida Gwaii Marine Plan identifies development of a tripartite Haida Gwaii Compliance and Enforcement Framework as an implementation priority, and coordinated compliance and enforcement is also highlighted in the draft Gwaii Haanas Land-Sea-People management plan. Further work will build on existing arrangements, with the aim to achieve integration of marine and terrestrial compliance and enforcement activities.
For more information on governance, and objectives and strategies to support these initiatives, see section 6.1 of the Haida Gwaii Marine Plan.